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What is IoT?

IoT is a trending technology of the 21st century. Now that we can make objects smart such as by connecting kitchen appliances, cars, thermostats, and baby monitors to the internet via embedded equipment, smooth and continuous communication among people, processes, and things.

It is all related to low-cost computing, the cloud, big data, analytics, and mobile technologies. Building cognitive thinking among physical objects and collecting data with nominal human intervention. In this hyperlinked world, digital systems are recording, monitoring, and adjusting each interaction between connected things. The physical world meets the digital world by interacting and performing tasks without human intervention.

IoT architecture:

It's all about the 4 major components in the flow which you can go through in IoTsens mindmap. where it involves Sensors and actuators, Internet getaways and Data Acquisition Systems, Edge IT, Data centers, and the cloud. IoT is establishing connections among devices and indulging cognitive ability. Wireless sensors and actuators as you see in the mindmap are in stage 1 of architecture. The first layer of any IoT system is “things” which are also called endpoint devices that serve as a connection between the physical and the digital worlds. Sensors and actuators are capable of collecting, accepting, and processing data over the next layers.

The network layer contains Data Acquiring Systems (DAS) and Internet/Network gateways. This aggregates the data and conversion devices like A/D converters.DAS helps to transmit and process the data collected by the sensor devices. The gateway builds communication with other servers, smart devices, and network devices. It handles all data transmissions for the devices. The edge systems perform enhanced analytics and pre-processing happens and the processed data can be sent to the cloud for storage.

An Endpoint could be a wearable fitness device, a control system for manufacturing, an automated telematics unit, or a personal drone unit. The different components we can work around here are Arduino, raspberry pi, Bluetooth modules, and different sensors connected to a device with connecting wires to build an endpoint.

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform where it will read inputs, connect obstruct sensors, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, and connecting it to the cloud. Building an end device with an obstruct sensor where if a person appears in front of the sensor it senses and throws output as 1 or else 0. This is what is explained in the IoT end device.HC05 is a Bluetooth module that is used to observe the output in our mobile connecting the HC05. This Bluetooth module is connected to the Arduino and the end device is our mobile. Arduino language is used to write programs in the Arduino IDE.

IoT Network protocol stack

A temperature monitoring system can be designed to monitor the temperature of the room which is a use case to understand the flow of layers in IoT. We use an ESP8266 wifi chip to connect to the Thingspeak cloud to monitor the temperature.

IoT communication is between the electronic component Arduino + Esp8266(wifi chip)+ Thingspeak cloud, Arduino + HC05 Bluetooth module to mobile. These are the use cases to understand the end-to-end application of IoT. There are different ways to connect to endpoints.

Application layer protocols

How to set up the raspberry pi and work with MQTT protocol.

MQTT works with publishing subscribe architecture and provides connectivity between applications and middleware on one side and it connects to networks and communicators at the end device.

Here are a few core concepts

  • To understand the advanced concepts of design methodologies to design IoT systems
  • To understand how to interface sensors, switches, led’s with MCUs
  • To understand the client-server architecture using a hands-on session
  • To understand the two main core concepts of prototyping boards
  • To understand the new emerging protocols for IoT implementation
  • To understand how to set up an HTTP server and test HTTP methods on the local host and with the cloud and also with the MQTT server with publishing and subscribe methods.

Understand the holistic view of the process to be followed to use pi as a local server as well as a client

  • Interfacing esp8266 with Arduino and analyzing the concept of gateway
  • Interfacing Nodemcu with pi and analyzing the pub sub-architecture.

Understand the concept of the HTTP protocol and learn new protocols for IoT devices

  • Understand the concept behind push architecture
  • Introduction of publishing and subscription methods
  • Interfacing using pi using MQTT protocol

As a part of this, we study Controlling Raspberry Pi remotely over the Internet using Microsoft Azure Services. Creating a web server for sending messages to your device with Node Js.

AWS IoT Core allows us to connect billions of IoT devices and route messages to AWS services without managing infrastructure. The process of setting up a Raspberry Pi weather station and showing the resulting temperature and humidity data in real-time with Power BI is a use case. Streaming datasets in Power BI represent streams of incoming data. Connecting the Raspberry Pi to collect temperature and humidity data. We can read data and send it powerBi. Powering IoT– Using The Raspberry PiThe course focuses on higher-level operating systems, advanced networking, user interfaces, and multimedia and uses more compute-intensive IoT applications as examples. We use the Raspberry Pi running Linux as the platform of choice, while also exposing the student to other comparable platforms. IoT and the Cloud-In this course, we explore the rapidly evolving field of cloud computing and its relation to IoT. We are including Amazon, Google, and Microsoft, and learn how to design and do the deployment. This course helps in understanding advanced analytics. Applying the appropriate ML algorithms including classification and segmentation on IoT datasets and working with streaming data.

As cloud computing has developed, different vendors offer clouds that have different services associated with them.

Iaas, Saas, Pass, Azure IoT Hub, AWS IoT Core, Cloud IoT Core on GCP(Google Cloud Platform)

These are certain use cases discussed where we can understand the real difference between IIOT and IOT

IIOT: Industrial IoT

ate product delivery can be devastating to a manufacturer, knowing where raw materials are and when they will arrive is crucial to a factory’s success. Because time is money, every day a shipment is late can mean lost profit for manufacturers. Late shipments can lead to spoilage concerns Ensuring the timely arrival of shipments in working or usable condition is mission-critical. RFID proves itself daily as an efficient tool for industrial uses. The IoT is one of the technologies that not only offers the ability to reduce costs, improve efficiency, enhance customer understanding and improve overall business visibility. For consumers looking for the most innovative and seamless shopping experience, it is obvious that retailers have taken on digital transformation and embraced the IoT and radio frequency identification(RFID). Retailers have been slow to adapt to digital transformation. The technologies will help them to achieve new ways of operational excellence that puts them ahead of their competition. Finally, IoT security concerns and vulnerabilities are more focussed.

The most important points where we can solve certain use cases :

  • To Interface ARDUINO AND LDR SENSOR to activate a buzzer and an LED
  • Control LED by clapping with the help of Arduino and Sound Sensor
  • To run NODEMCU as a server
  • To control an led from a web browser using NODE MCU
  • To interface esp01 with Arduino and control using talk back app
  • To interface the IR sensor with Raspberry Pi and Controlling led is connected to raspberry using a Telegram bot
  • To receive SMS on the app using the telegram bot
  • Python is the core programming tool for the course which is the leader of all other tools