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Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP) / Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

  • July 15, 2023
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Non-Linear patterns can be handled in two ways:

Changing Integration Function:

multi layered perceptron

The nonlinear pattern will not be captured by the mere existence of hidden layers. The activation function that will be employed must not be linear.

Only linear patterns may be captured by using linear or identifiable activation functions inside the neurons of the hidden layer.

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A linear activation function is assumed by default by the network if no activation functions are provided in the layers.

multi layered perceptron

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List of Activation Functions Include

multi layered perceptron

Regularization Techniques used for Overfitting

L1 regularization / L1 weight decay term

L2 regularization / L2 weight decay term

multi layered perceptron

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Error-Change Criterion

  • Stop when error isn't dropping over a window of, say, 10 epochs
  • Train for a fixed number of epochs after criterion is reached (possibly with lower learning rate)

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Weight-Change Criterion

  • Compare weights at epochs t-10 & t and testmulti layered perceptron
  • Possibly express as a percentage of the weight

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Dropout

This method of model averaging in the Deep Learning Training Phase is interesting: Ignore (zero out) a random subset, p, of nodes (and associated activations) for each hidden layer, training sample, and iteration.

In the test phase, use all activations, but scale them down by a factor p (to make up for the activations that were not present during training).

Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

Choose a selection of nodes at random, then reduce their output to zero.

Randomly select a subset of nodes and force their output to zero.

multi layered perceptron

Drop Connect

But unlike dropout, we deactivate the weights rather than the nodes. The nodes are a little bit active here.

multi layered perceptron

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multi layered perceptron

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Batch Normalization:

Input: Values of x over a mini-batch: B = { x1...m };

multi layered perceptron

  • Batch Normalization layer is usually inserted before non-linearity layer (after Fully Connected or Dense Layer)
  • Reduces the strong dependence on weight initialization

Shuffling Inputs

  • Choose examples with maximum information content
  • Shuffle the training set so that successive training examples never (rarely) belong to the same class
  • Present input examples that produce a large error more frequently than examples that produce a small error. Why? It helps to take large steps in the Gradient descent

Weight Initialization Techniques:

Xavier’s initialization
multi layered perceptron
Caffe implements a simpler version of Xavier’s initialization
caffe implements
He’s initialization
he's initialization

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