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Principal Component Analysis in Data Science

  • July 01, 2023
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Bharani Kumar Depuru is a well known IT personality from Hyderabad. He is the Founder and Director of Innodatatics Pvt Ltd and 360DigiTMG. Bharani Kumar is an IIT and ISB alumni with more than 17 years of experience, he held prominent positions in the IT elites like HSBC, ITC Infotech, Infosys, and Deloitte. He is a prevalent IT consultant specializing in Industrial Revolution 4.0 implementation, Data Analytics practice setup, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Analytics, Industrial IoT, Business Intelligence and Business Management. Bharani Kumar is also the chief trainer at 360DigiTMG with more than Ten years of experience and has been making the IT transition journey easy for his students. 360DigiTMG is at the forefront of delivering quality education, thereby bridging the gap between academia and industry.

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Principle Component Analysis

The typical approach employed in data sciences is to deal with growing dimensions or a larger number of characteristics. Large amounts of data are growing daily. Therefore, as the volume of the data rises, so do the number of characteristics in the data. The data set's characteristics also get better. A data science model becomes over-fitted or occasionally produces mistakes as we feed it additional features. Principal component analysis (PCA) and several other linear and non-linear dimensionality reduction approaches are used to address the problems of dimensionality reduction in the data sets. In this post, our team of specialists has covered a variety of principal component analysis topics.

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  • What is Principal Component Analysis:

    The principal component analysis is a commonly used method to reduce the number of features from the feature’s settings to select a specific subset of features.The principal component analysis applies mathematical formulas to calculate different principal components and then select the different features based on these components. The data scientists choose different features based on these calculated components and delete the rest. The principal component analysis converts the data set with more features into a data set with a smaller number of features, but the information from the data set is not disturbed or deleted. The main information in the data set remains the same.

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    Principal component analysis is mostly used to remove elements from the data set that do not have an impact on the target variable. Building various data science models requires a data scientist to work with a wide range of characteristics and variables. Different data science and machine learning models may have some restrictions. As a result, data scientists constantly investigate the connections between various traits or factors. The data scientists use the principal component analysis approach to determine how the various elements of the data set are related to one another. This technique also aids in the removal of a certain number of characteristics from the data set that don't relate to the target variable.

    There are mainly two different methods used in the principal component analysis,which mainly include the feature extraction method and feature elimination method. We have discussed the methods of feature selection and feature elimination here in detail.

    • Feature Selection:

      The process of feature engineering is very different from that of feature selection. As with the feature engineering approach, the data scientists do not create new features from the existing collection of features while using the feature selection strategy. A subset of features from the supplied collection of features is chosen using the feature selection method, which is also utilised in dimensionality reduction approaches. The processes of feature engineering and feature selection are distinct and cannot be combined. Even both provide the same function. The approach of regenerating the features from the existing collection of features makes feature engineering one step ahead of the feature selection method.

    • Feature Elimination

      Feature Elimination is a method used to delete some of the features from the given set of features. It is mainly used along with the principal component analysis method by most data scientists. It is a method that automatically removes the week features from the given set of features and the data set. In this method, different statistical methods are used to find out the best features of the data set by removing the week features from the given data set. It is recursively used and remove the week and unwanted features from the given data set until we find the best subset of features. This method uses both the correlation and variance method to select the best features from the given data set.

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    When to Use the Principal Component Analysis:

    When it is important to use the principal component analysis, feature selection, and feature deletion procedures, our team of specialists has explored many instances.

    • Low Frequent Features

      When the specific data set contains the frequent features in the data set, it becomes necessary to delete some of the features from the training data set to avoid the problem of error during the training. So different data dimensionality reduction techniques are used, which include principal component analysis, feature selection, and feature elimination methods.

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      Noise Data

      The consistency of the data has a significant impact on how well the data model performs. Data scientists use a variety of approaches to eliminate noise from the data if it is inconsistent. The noise from the provided data set is greatly reduced thanks to the principal component analysis.

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    • Complex Model

      When the data sets have more features, some of the machine learning models fail to feed the data set for training the model. On the other hand, some models take more time and space to feed the model. In order to reduce the complexity in the given data set, you need to apply different dimensionality reduction methods like principal component analysis, feature elimination, and feature selection method. By applying these methods, the model becomes simpler, and it does not take more time in the training of the model.

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      Sampling

      A portion of the data set is used to train the model using the sample preprocessing approach, which improves the model's accuracy and performance. Prior to training the data, it is mostly utilised in the preparation of the data set. Certain data science models may have certain restrictions. Some data science algorithms are challenging to train on huge data sets. The utilised system may have certain restrictions. You must use the sample from the data set that accurately represents the entire data set in order to get around these issues. One technique for sampling by removing some of the characteristics from the data set is principal component analysis. This goal is also served by feature deletion and feature selection.

      Different facets of the principal component analysis have been explored by our team of subject matter experts. Visit our website for additional papers on dimensionality reduction and other data science and machine learning-related subjects.

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