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SQL for Data Science One Step Solution for Beginners

  • June 28, 2023
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Meet the Author : Mr. Bharani Kumar

Bharani Kumar Depuru is a well known IT personality from Hyderabad. He is the Founder and Director of Innodatatics Pvt Ltd and 360DigiTMG. Bharani Kumar is an IIT and ISB alumni with more than 17 years of experience, he held prominent positions in the IT elites like HSBC, ITC Infotech, Infosys, and Deloitte. He is a prevalent IT consultant specializing in Industrial Revolution 4.0 implementation, Data Analytics practice setup, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Analytics, Industrial IoT, Business Intelligence and Business Management. Bharani Kumar is also the chief trainer at 360DigiTMG with more than Ten years of experience and has been making the IT transition journey easy for his students. 360DigiTMG is at the forefront of delivering quality education, thereby bridging the gap between academia and industry.

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Data science is a modern-day developing subject where there are many work prospects for young people. Many talents are necessary for data scientists. SQL is the most important and fundamental skill that all potential data science applicants must possess. The majority of businesses today are data-driven. A database management system (DBMS) is used to handle and manage this data, which is kept in a large database. DBMS may help you organise your tasks better. The DBMS model must thus be integrated with this well-known programming language. Particularly when working with a database, SQL is a versatile and popular programming language. SQL is supported by several relational databases, including Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server, etc. Due to the fact that the SQL standard contains specific characteristics that are implemented differently in different types of database systems, it is well recognised that SQL is a useful idea in the data science area.

Need of SQL in Data Science

SQL stands for a structured query language that helps perform a wide variety of operations on different data stored in database systems such as views, updated records, creation of tables, deleting the records, and modification of tables. Many big data platforms use SQL for relational databases as API. Data science is the study of different type of data that needs to be extracted from the database. This is where SQL is required. SQL commands help data scientists query, define, create, control, and manipulate the database. SQL is considered the best choice for in-office operations and business kit intelligence tools in the modern industry. SQL is now a standard for several database systems. Modeling of several database platforms is done after SQL. Spark and Hadoop are some big and modern data systems that processes structured data and maintain the relational database by using SQL.

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Data Science

SQL – Data Science Statistics

SQL is the third difficult skill a data scientist must master since it allows them to process raw data and provide insightful analyses. Data scientists and data engineers prefer it over Python and R. It is well renowned for having tremendous significance and is a preferred language. SQL is required when there is structured data in table form. SQL isn't utilised for relational or structured databases that aren't as strong, thus NoSQL databases are used instead.

Some interesting facts about SQL that should Know

One important fact about SQL is that it contains descriptive words. In easy words, SQL commands are comparatively much easier to understand than other programming languages. This makes this programming language simple to learn and easy to understand. For instance, if you want to choose a column AGE from the PERSON table, then you have to write the SQL command in the following way-

SELECT AGE FROM PERSON; SQL language contains ISO standards. The implementation is not similar for all syntax. You may see that query that may not work in MySQL but works in SQL server. It is a simple, understandable, and non-procedural language with the help of this. You can communicate and interact with data. You may not write a whole application using this language.

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Why SQL for Data Science?

Every day, 2.5 quintillion data bytes are generated, hence a database is required to store such enormous volumes of data. One of SQL's most important characteristics when manipulating data is direct accessibility. This is one of the key advantages of SQL since it makes process implementation and execution more efficient. Before delving deeply into SQL, beginners must be familiar with the relational model.

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Basics Of SQL

SQL provides simple commands to modify/change data tables. Some basic SQL commands are as follows
SELECT – data extraction from database
DROP TABLE – table gets deleted
DELETE- data gets deleted from the database
CREATE DATABASE- a new database is created
CREATE INDEX – an index is created to look for an element
ALTER TABLE- a table is modified
INSERT INTO- new data is inserted into the database
CREATE TABLE – a new table is created

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What elements of SQL do data scientists need to know?

Following are the SQL skills that data scientists must know-

  • SQL indexing
  • SubQuery
  • SQL Joins
  • Knowledge about relational database model
  • Primary as well as a foreign key
  • Tables creation as well as retrieval of data from tables
  • Knowledge about SQL commands


What types of SQL databases are best for data science?

There are many relational databases; however, among them, MySql is known to be the famous database for all business organizations. Some also prefer PostgreSQL.


Steps for learning SQL

  • Data understanding

    Understanding data is the first and most vital step in learning SQL. Since understanding data is the key to generating accurate and effective queries, a data science candidate should spend time learning about data association and modelling diagrams. Knowing about data is preferable than merely understanding it. You must be aware of all data relationships and dependencies.

  • Business understanding

    After familiarizing yourself with data, the next step is to know about a business problem that you have to solve. If you can understand the data and identify the problem, then writing queries will simply fill in the blanks. Understanding a business problem makes you more comfortable in query writing.

  • Profiling data

    Descriptive statistics are a task that data scientists must conduct while profiling data. This process aids in classifying data quality issues prior to analysis. You must begin with a choose statement if getting data is a frequent occurrence.

  • Start with select

    It is important to know that you always have to begin with the SELECT statement. This shows that SQL language is consistent. If you are a beginner, you need to start simply. So start with a single table, include more data, add the next table, check the outcome, and go back then. While using queries, it is always important to start with inner queries before building.

  • Test and troubleshoot

    Testing the query is necessary. If you need to make a guess about the typical selling price, use that table's search function to see how many numbers it returns. The results must be combined with several tables before thorough examination. Make sure the manipulation's sequence is exact. Starting troubleshooting off quickly and simply is helpful. Checking where things went wrong is crucial for recreating the query.

  • Format & Comment

    The most important thing to consider while query writing is to ensure that you format it correctly and comment accurately. To ensure that the query is easy to read, use comments wherever needed and recommended indentation. Keeping the code quite clean and strategically formatting the comments wherever required is important.

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SQL Queries

There are five parts of SQL queries in query execution on any RDBMS system. They are as follows-

  • DDL (Data definition language)
    It contains commands that handle the database structures like alter, truncate, create, drop, rename.
  • DML (Data Manipulation Language)
    It includes commands for doing operations like delete, insert and update to change the existing data in databases.
  • DQL (Data Query language)
    It includes select operation that matches the specification of users by retrieving the data and contains nested queries.
  • DCL (Data control language)
    Data administrators use this command for revoking and granting permission for data accessing in the organization's database.
  • TCL (Transaction Control Language)
    Transaction present in the database can be effectively managed with this command. It is used for performing DML operations and helps in clubbing multiple commands in one operation.

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SQL Views and Stored Procedures

SQL views are virtual tables that are created from existing tables to aid in database optimisation. By preventing users from accessing all database data, it improves security. Stored procedures assist in resolving the issue of creating continuous reporting processes for data science. Using the stored procedure, DML operations are processed and produced on the database, and user input is used to execute SQL instructions.

SQL Joins

Different tables are combined in the database using SQL join clause where with the help of foreign key and primary key JOIN is made. The four joins combined with the ‘from' clause is full, inner, right, and left.

SQL aggression

The main aim of data science is to get meaningful insight, and SQL aggression query helps to perform a combination of several entities. A deterministic function that helps calculate a set of values is aggression, which gives a single entity. The SQL aggression function helps extract insights from days because it takes place on several rows. Some standard function of SQL is min, count, avg, sum, and max operation.

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Benefits of SQL for Data Science

  • A user-friendly language, SQL for data science makes it simple for users to learn and comprehend.
  • SQL for data science makes it very easy to obtain large amounts of data from several databases, making it highly effective at processing queries quickly.
  • Due to the standard documentation that SQL provides its users, it facilitates exceptional handling.

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